Coran:20. Sourate Tâha / Version lue / Mohammed Almohisni : Arabe et traduction en français

Période de Révélation
Cette sourate a été révélée à la même époque que la sourate intitulée ’Marie’ (Maryam), probablement pendant ou juste après l’émigration de quelques musulmans en Abyssinie. Dans tous les cas, il ne fait aucun doute que la révélation de cette sourate a précédé la conversion de `Umar Ibn Al-Khattâb — qu’Allâh l’agrée —. En effet, selon une fameuse et authentique tradition, sur le chemin qui devait le conduire chez le prophète — paix et bénédictions sur lui — puis l’assassiner, `Umar croisa un compagnon qui, pour le détourner de sa route, lui dit : « Tu devrais avant tout apprendre que ta propre sœur et son époux ont embrassé l’Islam ». A ces mots, `Umar alla directement chez sa sœur, Fâtimah Bint Al-Khattâb qu’il surprit, tout comme son beau frère, Sa`îd Ibn Zayd (pour l’anecdote, il s’agit de l’un des 10 compagnons (al-mubashsharûn bil-jannah) à qui le paradis fut promis de leur vivant) en pleine lecture d’un parchemin contenant des versets et appartenant à Khabbâb Ibn Art.


Quand Fâtimah le vit entrer, elle s’empressa de cacher le manuscrit. Mais `Umar les avait entendu réciter et les questionna si brutalement, frappant son beau frère et blessant sa sœur qui tentait de s’interposer, qu’à la fin ils se confessèrent : « Nous sommes Musulmans à présent et tu peux faire de nous ce que tu voudras ». `Umar se calma et s’émut à la vue du sang qui coulait sur la tête de sa sœur. Il leur dit « Montrez-moi ce que vous lisiez ». Sa sœur lui fit d’abord jurer qu’il ne détruirait pas le parchemin et ajouta « Tu ne toucheras pas le manuscrit, si tu ne te laves pas », ce que fit `Umar. Puis, à peine eut-il commencé la lecture du parchemin, qui contenait la sourate Tâ Ha, qu’il s’écria : « Qu’est-ce que c’est merveilleux ! ». C’est à ce moment que Khabbâb, jusqu’alors caché, se montra et dit : « Par Allâh, je savais qu’Allâh nous renforcerait par ta conversion pour propager le Message de Son Prophète parce qu’hier, j’ai entendu le Prophète invoquer Allâh disant : ’Seigneur, renforce l’Islam par Abû Al-Hakam Ibn Hishâm (Abû Jahl) ou `Umar Ibn Al-Khattâb’. Allez `Umar, dirige toi vers Allâh, dirige toi vers Allâh ! ». Ces paroles furent si convaincantes qu’il se rendit chez le Prophète, en compagnie de Khabbâb, et s’y convertit. Et tout ceci se produisit peu de temps avant l’émigration en Abyssinie.



Sujets de la sourate

Le début de la sourate affirme le but ultime de toute la révélation : « Ô Muhammad ! Ce Coran ne t’est pas révélé pour te rendre malheureux. Il n’exige pas de toi l’impossible tâche de changer le cœur des mécréants obstinés. Non, il incarne simplement un avertissement destiné à guider vers le Droit Chemin ceux qui craignent Allâh et veulent éviter Son Châtiment. Ce Coran est la Parole du Seigneur et Dieu de la terre et des cieux et n’appartient qu’à Lui : ceci est la Vérité éternelle, que les gens y croient ou pas.



Après cette introduction, l’histoire de Moïse est évoquée, sans transition et sans même expliciter le parallèle avec la situation des musulmans à cette époque. Cependant, une lecture approfondie permet de voir que ces paroles s’appliquent parfaitement aux habitants de la Mecque. Avant de révéler le sens caché de ces paroles, précisons que les arabes, grâce à l’influence des nombreux juifs qui vivaient en Arabie ainsi que des royaumes chrétiens voisins, reconnaissaient que Moïse étaient un Prophète d’Allâh.



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