O you who have believed, do not take My enemies and your enemies as allies, extending to them affection while they have disbelieved in what came to you of the truth, having driven out the Prophet and yourselves [only] because you believe in AllŒh, your Lord. If you have come out for jihŒd [i.e., fighting or striving] in My cause and seeking means to My approval, [take them not as friends]. You confide to them affection [i.e., instruction], but I am most knowing of what you have concealed and what you have declared. And whoever does it among you has certainly strayed from the soundness of the way.
There has already been for you an excellent pattern in Abraham and those with him, when they said to their people, "Indeed, we are disassociated from you and from whatever you worship other than AllŒh. We have denied you, and there has appeared between us and you animosity and hatred forever until you believe in AllŒh alone" – except for the saying of Abraham to his father, "I will surely ask forgiveness for you, but I have not [power to do] for you anything against AllŒh. Our Lord, upon You we have relied, and to You we have returned, and to You is the destination.
AllŒh does not forbid you from those who do not fight you because of religion and do not expel you from your homes – from being righteous toward them and acting justly toward them. Indeed, AllŒh loves those who act justly.
AllŒh only forbids you from those who fight you because of religion and expel you from your homes and aid in your expulsion – [forbids] that you make allies of them. And whoever makes allies of them, then it is those who are the wrongdoers.
O you who have believed, when the believing women come to you as emigrants, examine [i.e., test] them. AllŒh is most knowing as to their faith. And if you know them to be believers, then do not return them to the disbelievers; they are not lawful [wives] for them, nor are they lawful [husbands] for them. But give them [i.e., the disbelievers] what they have spent. And there is no blame upon you if you marry them when you have given them their due compensation [i.e., mahr]. And hold not to marriage bonds with disbelieving women, but ask for what you have spent and let them [i.e., the disbelievers] ask for what they have spent. That is the judgement of AllŒh; He judges between you. And AllŒh is Knowing and Wise.
1- For marriage, i.e., compensate their loss. 2- When a disbelieving wife chose to join the disbelievers, a Muslim husband could demand in return the equivalent of her mahr. Likewise, the disbelievers had a similar right when a believing woman joined the Muslims. This and the following verses were revealed subsequent to the Treaty of al-îudaybiyyah.
And if you have lost any of your wives to the disbelievers and you subsequently obtain [something], then give those whose wives have gone the equivalent of what they had spent. And fear AllŒh, in whom you are believers.
1- From the side of the disbelievers, i.e., war booty or a believing woman seeking refuge with the Muslims.
O Prophet, when the believing women come to you pledging to you that they will not associate anything with AllŒh, nor will they steal, nor will they commit unlawful sexual intercourse, nor will they kill their children, nor will they bring forth a slander they have invented between their arms and legs, nor will they disobey you in what is right – then accept their pledge and ask forgiveness for them of AllŒh. Indeed, AllŒh is Forgiving and Merciful.
1- This is an allusion to pregnancy and childbirth, i.e., to falsely attribute a child (whether adopted or born of adultery) to a woman's husband.
O you who have believed, do not make allies of a people with whom AllŒh has become angry. They have despaired of [reward in] the Hereafter just as the disbelievers have despaired of [meeting] the companions [i.e., inhabitants] of the graves.