Certainly has AllŒh heard the speech of the one who argues [i.e., pleads] with you, [O Muúammad], concerning her husband and directs her complaint to AllŒh. And AllŒh hears your dialogue; indeed, AllŒh is Hearing and Seeing.
Those who pronounce thihŒr among you [to separate] from their wives – they are not [consequently] their mothers. Their mothers are none but those who gave birth to them. And indeed, they are saying an objectionable statement and a falsehood. But indeed, AllŒh is Pardoning and Forgiving.
1- The saying by a husband to his wife, "You are to me like the back of my mother," meaning unlawful to approach. This was a type of divorce practiced by the Arabs before the prophethood of Muúammad (^).
And those who pronounce thihŒr from their wives and then [wish to] go back on what they said – then [there must be] the freeing of a slave before they touch one another. That is what you are admonished thereby; and AllŒh is Aware of what you do.
And he who does not find [a slave] – then a fast for two months consecutively before they touch one another; and he who is unable – then the feeding of sixty poor persons. That is for you to believe [completely] in AllŒh and His Messenger; and those are the limits [set by] AllŒh. And for the disbelievers is a painful punishment.
Indeed, those who oppose AllŒh and His Messenger are abased as those before them were abased. And We have certainly sent down verses of clear evidence. And for the disbelievers is a humiliating punishment
Have you not considered that AllŒh knows what is in the heavens and what is on the earth? There are not three in a private conversation but that He is the fourth of them, nor are there five but that He is the sixth of them – and no less than that and no more except that He is with them [in knowledge] wherever they are. Then He will inform them of what they did, on the Day of Resurrection. Indeed AllŒh is, of all things, Knowing.
1- Through His knowledge of them and their secrets.
Have you not considered those who were forbidden from private conversation [i.e., ridicule and conspiracy] and then return to that which they were forbidden and converse among themselves about sin and aggression and disobedience to the Messenger? And when they come to you, they greet you with that [word] by which AllŒh does not greet you and say among themselves, "Why does AllŒh not punish us for what we say?" Sufficient for them is Hell, which they will [enter to] burn, and wretched is the destination.
1- This is in reference to the Jews who would greet the Muslims with the words "Death be upon you," rather than "Peace."
O you who have believed, when you converse privately, do not converse about sin and aggression and disobedience to the Messenger but converse about righteousness and piety. And fear AllŒh, to whom you will be gathered.
Private conversation is only from Satan that he may grieve those who have believed, but he will not harm them at all except by permission of AllŒh. And upon AllŒh let the believers rely.
1- The reference may be to the sinful type of conversation, as mentioned in the previous verses, or to the practice of two persons speaking in confidence in the presence of a third, which might lead him to assume that he is the subject of their conversation. Such behavior was prohibited by the Prophet (^) in narrations of al-BukhŒr¥ and Muslim.
O you who have believed, when you are told, "Space yourselves" in assemblies, then make space; AllŒh will make space for you. And when you are told, "Arise," then arise; AllŒh will raise those who have believed among you and those who were given knowledge, by degrees. And AllŒh is Aware of what you do.
1- In His mercy, in Paradise, or in everything good. 2- To prayer, to battle, or to good deeds.
O you who have believed, when you [wish to] privately consult the Messenger, present before your consultation a charity. That is better for you and purer. But if you find not [the means] – then indeed, AllŒh is Forgiving and Merciful.
Have you feared to present before your consultation charities? Then when you do not and AllŒh has forgiven you, then [at least] establish prayer and give zakŒh and obey AllŒh and His Messenger. And AllŒh is Aware of what you do.
You will not find a people who believe in AllŒh and the Last Day having affection for those who oppose AllŒh and His Messenger, even if they were their fathers or their sons or their brothers or their kindred. Those – He has decreed within their hearts faith and supported them with spirit from Him. And We will admit them to gardens beneath which rivers flow, wherein they abide eternally. AllŒh is pleased with them, and they are pleased with Him – those are the party of AllŒh. Unquestionably, the party of AllŒh – they are the successful.
1- i.e., "that which gives life," explained as the guidance of the QurÕŒn or victory over their opponents.