AllŒh has not made for a man two hearts in his interior. And He has not made your wives whom you declare unlawful your mothers. And He has not made your claimed [i.e., adopted] sons your [true] sons. That is [merely] your saying by your mouths, but AllŒh says the truth, and He guides to the [right] way.
1- By the expression "You are to me like the back of my mother." Such an oath taken against approaching one's wife was a pre-IslŒmic practice declared by AllŒh (subúŒnahu wa taÔŒlŒ) to be a sin requiring expiation as described in 58:3-4.
Call them by [the names of] their fathers; it is more just in the sight of AllŒh. But if you do not know their fathers – then they are [still] your brothers in religion and those entrusted to you. And there is no blame upon you for that in which you have erred but [only for] what your hearts intended. And ever is AllŒh Forgiving and Merciful.
The Prophet is more worthy of the believers than themselves, and his wives are [in the position of] their mothers. And those of [blood] relationship are more entitled [to inheritance] in the decree of AllŒh than the [other] believers and the emigrants, except that you may do to your close associates a kindness [through bequest]. That was in the Book inscribed.
1- He (^) is more worthy of their obedience and loyalty and is more concerned for them than they are for one another. 2- The Preserved Slate (al-Lawú al-Maúf´th).
That He may question the truthful about their truth. And He has prepared for the disbelievers a painful punishment.
1- i.e., that He may ask the prophets what they conveyed to their people and what response they received. "The truthful" may also refer to those who believed in the message conveyed by the prophets and imparted it to others.
O you who have believed, remember the favor of AllŒh upon you when armies came to [attack] you and We sent upon them a wind and armies [of angels] you did not see. And ever is AllŒh, of what you do, Seeing.
And when a faction of them said, "O people of Yathrib, there is no stability for you [here], so return [home]." And a party of them asked permission of the Prophet, saying, "Indeed, our houses are exposed [i.e., unprotected]," while they were not exposed. They did not intend except to flee.
1- The name by which al-Mad¥nah was known before the arrival of the Prophet (^).
Indisposed toward you. And when fear comes, you see them looking at you, their eyes revolving like one being overcome by death. But when fear departs, they lash you with sharp tongues, indisposed toward [any] good. Those have not believed, so AllŒh has rendered their deeds worthless, and ever is that, for AllŒh, easy.
1- Literally, "stingy," i.e., unwilling to offer any help.
They think the companies have not [yet] withdrawn. And if the companies should come [again], they would wish they were in the desert among the bedouins, inquiring [from afar] about your news. And if they should be among you, they would not fight except for a little.
1- In their excessive fear the cowardly hypocrites could not believe the enemy forces had been defeated.
And when the believers saw the companies, they said, "This is what AllŒh and His Messenger had promised us, and AllŒh and His Messenger spoke the truth." And it increased them only in faith and acceptance.
Among the believers are men true to what they promised AllŒh. Among them is he who has fulfilled his vow [to the death], and among them is he who awaits [his chance]. And they did not alter [the terms of their commitment] by any alteration –
And He brought down those who supported them among the People of the Scripture from their fortresses and cast terror into their hearts [so that] a party [i.e., their men] you killed, and you took captive a party [i.e., the women and children].
1- The Jews of Ban´ Quraythah, who had violated their treaty with the Muslims.